LINE (combat system)

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LINE is a close quarters combat system, derived from various martial arts, used by the United States Marine Corps between 1989 and 1998. It was developed by retired Marine Ron Donvito after extensive study of human anatomy and various martial arts.

Officially, the name stands for Linear Infighting Neural Override Engagement; this is, however, a backronym coined during the project’s inception.[1] It is also known as the “7 Deadly Moves of Combat” philosophy.[citation needed]

The system was designed to be executed within specific combat conditions: limited visibility, extreme mental and physical fatigue (while wearing full combat gear), when numerically inferior, and designed to cause death to the opponent. The system’s techniques were designed to be easily learned and retained through repetition.

LINE was adopted by the Marine Corps in 1989 at a Course Content Review Board (CCRB) at Quantico, Virginia. All techniques were demonstrated for and deemed medically feasible by the Armed Forces Medical Examiner (given a single attack opponent who doesn’t counter) and a board of forensic pathologists from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in 1991.

LINE was removed in 1998 after another CCRB and was replaced that year by a close combat program more in line with the battlefield, where Marines are engaged in many scenarios that require more versatile approach based on reality. This system was completely scrapped and was replaced by the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) in 2002.

The LINE System was adopted in 1998 by U.S. Army Special Forces at the Special Forces Qualification Course (SFQC). Primary instruction took place during phase II and was remediated in phases III and V at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. LINE was replaced by the Modern Army Combatives Program (MACP) in October 2007 once its shortcomings were established as a sustainable internal program that could be employed across the full spectrum of Army units within reasonable costs.