Amateur wrestling

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Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling. There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games under the supervision of FILA (Fédération Internationale des Luttes Associées or International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles): Greco-Roman and freestyle. Freestyle is possibly derived from the English Lancashire style. A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles played on a mat.

Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted; in Greco-Roman, the wrestlers are permitted to hold and attack only above the waist. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways:

In 2004, FILA radically changed the format and scoring of the international styles. Part of this involved eliminating two ways of scoring which are possible from the par terre, or ‘on the mat,’ position.

As in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for takedowns and reversals. It also awards points for escapes. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which basically penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner in which infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling also awards points for:

In the international styles, the format is now three two-minute periods. A wrestler wins the match when he has won two out of three periods. For example, if one competitor were to win the first period 1-0 and the second period 1-0, the match would be over. However, if the other competitor were to win the second period, then a third and deciding period would result. Only a fall, injury default, or disqualification terminates the match; all other modes of victory result only in period termination.[2]

One side effect of this format is that it is possible for the losing wrestler to outscore the winner. For example, periods may be scored 3-2, 0-4, 1-0, leading to a total score of 4-6 but a win for the wrestler scoring fewer points.

In collegiate wrestling, the period structure is different. A college match consists of one three-minute period, followed by two two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary.[3] A high school match typically consists of three two-minute periods, with an overtime round if necessary.[4] Under the standard rules for collegiate wrestling, draws are not possible; this rule is sometimes modified for young wrestlers.

A match can be won in the following ways:

In freestyle, if neither wrestler has scored a point at the end of the two-minute period then a procedure known as The Clinch is used to decide the winner. The referee flips a colored disk with a blue side and a red side. This determined which wrestler will take the opponent’s leg while kneeling in front of his opponent. Once the referee blows his whistle, the kneeling wrestler has 30 seconds to score a point and win the period. If he does not score or his opponent scores first, then the wrestler whose leg was taken to start the period is declared the winner.[7]

In Greco-Roman, the Clinch procedure is slightly different. The first 60 seconds of a Greco-Roman wrestling period feature both wrestler attempting to gain takedowns and other points from a neutral position. At the end of the first minute, in general, the wrestler who has scored the most points is awarded an Olympic lift from an open par terre position on the other wrestler. This position is known as The Clinch in Greco-Roman wrestling. If neither wrestler at the end of the first minute of the period has any points, the wrestler receiving the Olympic lift will be the winner of a colored disk toss. At the end of thirty seconds, the clinch position is reversed with the other wrestler receiving the Olympic lift, and the period is decided by who accumulated the most points during both standing and ground phases. During the ground phase if the top wrestler cannot score, the other wrestler is awarded one point. In the case of no scoring moves being executed during either ground phase the score will be 1-1, and in this case generally the wrestler to score last will be awarded the period.[7]

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