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Chángquán (traditional Chinese: ??; simplified Chinese: ??; literally “Long Fist”) is a general term for external (as opposed to internal) Northern Wushu. It is one of the types of Wushu kung fu.
The forms within the Long Fist style emphasize fully extended kicks and striking techniques, and by its appearance would be considered a long range fighting system. In some Long Fist styles the motto is that “the best defense is a strong offense,” in which case the practitioner launches a pre-emptive attack so aggressive that the opponent doesn’t have the opportunity to attack. Long Fist uses large, extended, circular movements to improve overall body mobility in the muscles, tendons, and joints. After advanced study, a Long Fist practitioner will find that its forms contain Qin Na joint-locking techniques, as well as Shuai Jiao throws and takedowns.
The Long Fist style is considered to contain a good balance of hand and foot techniques, but in particular it is renowned for its impressive acrobatic kicks. Of contemporary wushù events, Long Fist techniques are most popular and memorable with its whirling, running, leaping, and acrobatics. Chanquan moves are difficult to perform, requiring great flexibility and athleticism comparable to gymnasts.
Long Fist’s arsenal of kicks covers everything from a basic front toe-kick to a jumping back-kick, from a low sweep to a tornado-kick. Specifically, typical moves in modern Changquan include: xuanfengjiao (???; “whirlwind kick”), xuanzi (??; “butterfly jump”), cekongfan (???; “side somersault”), and tengkongfeijiao (????; “flying jump kick”).
The core of Changquan / Long Fist was developed in the 10th century by Zhao Kuangyin, founding Emperor of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). His style was called Tàizu Chángquán, which means “the Long Fist style of Emperor Taizu.” In semi-legendary “classic” writings transmitted by Tàijíquán’s Yang family, their martial art is referred to by the name Chángquán in one of the received texts. These texts can only be reliably dated to the second half of the 19th century. The Long fist of contemporary wushù draws on Chaquán, “flower fist” Huaquán, Pào Chuí, and “red fist” (Hóngquán).
North Shaolin Long Fist Kung Fu Includes:
Stances used in the Long Fist system
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